Papers & Reports

Subacoustech are keen make available information on underwater acoustics and are actively seeking permission to release a number of current and previous reports to the public. When released, reports will be available to download in Adobe Acrobat (*.pdf) format from this page.

The reports and papers below are available for general distribution. They should be referenced using the text given below and Subacoustech's full address and website details, which are given on the contact page.

COWRIE Reports

The following reports were produced by Subacoustech for the COWRIE trust. To view the COWRIE trust press release that accompanies these reports click here.

Environmental

The following papers and reports are currently not available for download, but paper copies may be available on request to subacoustech@subacoustech.com

Behavioural and lethal effects of sound on marine species

  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H (2004) 'The bioacoustics of acoustic fish deterrent systems; why fish react to sound, and how acoustic deflection systems can be designed for maximum efficiency'. American Fisheries Society - 134th Annual Meeting - 22-26 August 2004.
  • Maes J, Turnpenny A W H , Nedwell J R, Lambert D, Ollevier F (2004) 'Field evaluation of a sound system to reduce estuarine fish intake rates at a power plant cooling water inlet (Doel, Belgium)'. Journal of Fish Management.
  • Nedwell J R, Lambert D, Turnpenny A W H (2003) 'Objective design of acoustic fish deterrent systems'. Proceedings of the Symposium on Cooling Water Intake Technologies to Protect Aquatic Organisms, Environmental Protection Agency, May 6- 7, 2003. Hilton Crystal City at National Airport, Arlington, VA.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H, Lambert D (2002) 'Guiding fish with sound, the acoustics of fish behavioural barrier design'. Proceedings of the American Fisheries Society 132nd Annual Meeting, 1822 August 2002, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Baltimore, USA.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H (1999) 'The bioacoustic fish fence; fish guidance by evanescent sound'. 129th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society Conference, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA August 1999.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H (1998) 'The use of a generic frequency weighting scale in estimating environmental effect'. Proceedings of the Workshop on Seismics and Marine Mammals, 23-25th June 1998, London, UK.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H (1998) 'The application of underwater acoustics for the protection of fish at small hydroelectric stations'. Hidroenergia 5th International Conference and Exhibition, Sept 27th - Oct 1st, Dublin Ireland.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H (1998) 'The use of a generic weighted frequency scale in estimating environmental effect'. Proceedings of the Workshop on Seismics and Marine Mammals, 23rd-25th June 1998, London, UK.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H, Lambert D (1998) 'Guiding fish with sound, the acoustics of fish behavioural barrier design'. 128th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society Conference, Baltimore, USA August 1998.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H (1996) 'Acoustic deflection of downstream migrants'. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fish Migration and Fish Bypass Channels, 24-26th September 1996, Vienna, Austria.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H (1995) 'Acoustic fish guidance at water intakes'. Proceedings of the Conference on Using Sound to Modify Fish Behaviour at Power-production and Water-control facilities, Portland, Oregon December 1995.

Medical

  • Bearham D A, Chapman B J, Gant N R N, Nedwell J R (1986) 'The measurement of left ventricular function in the anaesthetised rat'. Proceedings of the Physiological Society.

Use of explosives & blasting

  • Nedwell J R, Thandavamoorthy T S (1992) 'The waterborne pressure wave from shallow underwater blasting: An experimental investigation'. Applied Acoustics V37 N1.
  • Wills G D, Nedwell J R (1992) 'Calculating the water-borne pressure wave from an underwater explosive charge buried in bedrock'. Proceedings of the Commission of the European Communities European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (Editor M Weydert) p648-651 Elsevier Applied Science 1992 ISBN 1 85166 9485.
  • Nedwell J R, Thandavamoorthy T S (1989) 'The response of breakwaters to underwater borehole blasting'. A critical review Journal of the Society for Underwater Technology 15(2) 3-9.
  • Nedwell J R (1989) 'The pressure impulse during shallow underwater blasting'. ISVR Technical Report No 178.
  • Nedwell J R, Greer R J (1988) 'Safe standoff distances for the public during shallow underwater blasting'. NoiseCon '88 Proceedings p131-136 INCE Publications.
  • Nedwell J R (1987) 'Safe standoff distances for the public during underwater blasting'. Explosives Engineering, 1, 23-24.
  • Nedwell J R, Thandavamoorthy T S 'Laboratory Measurement of the blast pressure underwater due to the detonation of buried and freely suspended explosive charges'. ISVR Memorandum No 698.
  • Nedwell J R 'A code of conduct for high explosive blasting operations'. ISVR Technical Memorandum No 692.
  • Nedwell J R, Thandavamoorthy T S 'Blast Response of structures and components. A bibliography with abstracts'. ISVR Memorandum 699.

Acoustic imaging & sonar

  • Ward P D, Nedwell J R (1992) 'Correlating short range measurements with the characteristics of an idealised sedimentary layer'. Proceedings of the Commission of the European Communities European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (Editor M Weydert) p531-534 Elsevier Applied Science 1992 ISBN 1 85166 9485.
  • Hewlett D A K, Nedwell J R (1992) 'The generation of a dipole field underwater by the superposition of monopoles'. Proceedings of the Commission of the European Communities European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (Editor M Weydert) p663-666 Elsevier Applied Science 1992 ISBN 1 85166 9485.
  • Boyle S P, Nedwell J R (1992) 'An investigation of air to water transmission from a monopole sound source via the FFT route'. Proceedings of the Commission of the European Communities European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (Editor M Weydert) p517-520 Elsevier Applied Science 1992 ISBN 1 85166 9485.
  • Nedwell J R, Fahy F J (1989) 'A technique for the experimental determination of the acoustic transmission and reflection characteristics of submerged plates'. Journal of Sound and Vibration Research, 133(1) 29-54.
  • Ward P D, Nedwell J R 'The use of short range underwater acoustical measurements to estimate some parameters of an idealised sedimentary layer'. ISVR Technical Report No 206.

Seismics

  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H, Hampson G (2003) 'Measurements of noise from seismic surveying in the North Sea; How effective is mitigation?' Proceedings of the Minerals Management Service Information Transfer Meeting, January 14th - 16th 2003, Kenner, Louisiana, USA.
  • Nedwell J R (2003) 'Removal mitigation planning and implementation; North Sea/UK Case Study'. Proceedings of the Minerals Management Service Information Transfer Meeting, January 14th - 16th 2003, Kenner, Louisiana, USA.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R (1996) 'The effects of low frequency sonar transmissions on divers: Literature survey and initial experimental results'. Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, The Anchorage Hilton, Anchorage, Alaska, May 1996.
  • Nedwell J R, Parvin S J (1996) 'Noise hazards for the commercial diver'. Health and Safety Executive Conference on Occupational Health Offshore, 26th - 28th March 1996, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
  • Nedwell J R, Parvin S J, Needham K (1995) 'Noise hazards for the underwater diver'. Subtech '95 Conference, Aberdeen, November 1995.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R (1995) 'Underwater sound perception and the development of an underwater noise weighting scale.' Journal of the Society for Underwater Technology 21(1) 1995.
  • Nedwell, J R, Needham K, Turnpenny A W H, Seaby R M H, Thatcher K P (1994) 'An investigation of sound propagation in shallow coastal waters'. Client Report to BP-Amoco-British Gas, Fawley Aquatic Research Laboratories Ltd. FCR 119/94.
  • Turnpenny A W H, Nedwell J R (1994) 'The effects on marine fish, diving mammals and birds of underwater sound generated by seismic surveys'. Report to the UK Offshore Operators Association No. FRR 089/94.
  • Turnpenny A W H, Seaby R M H, Nedwell J R, Needham K (1994) 'Underwater sound pressures measured during seismic testing at Redhorn Quay'. Client Report to BP Exploration, FCR 118/94.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R, Thomas A J, Needham K, Thompson R (1994) 'Underwater sound perception by divers: the development of an underwater hearing thresholds curve and its use in assessing the hazard to divers from underwater sound'. The Defence Research Agency Report No DRA/AWL/CR941004 June 1994.
  • Nedwell J R, Parvin S J (1994) 'Noise and Hearing Loss in Divers'. Journal of the Society for Underwater Technology 20(4) 1994.
  • Nedwell J R, Martin A, Parvin S J (1993) 'Underwater Tool Noise: Implications for hearing loss'. Advances in Underwater Technology, Ocean Science and Offshore Engineering 31 1993.
  • Nedwell J R, Martin A, Mansfield N (1993) 'Underwater tool noise; implications for hearing loss. Advances in underwater technology ocean science and offshore engineering V31'. The Society for Underwater Technology London, 1993, 267-275.
  • Al-Masri M, Martin A, Nedwell J R (1992) 'Underwater noise exposure and hearing'. Proceedings of the Commission of the European Communities European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (Editor M Weydert) p363-366 Elsevier Applied Science 1992 ISBN 1 85166 9485.
  • Edwards B, Nedwell J R (1992) 'A low frequency underwater anechoic for laboratory applications'. Proceedings of the Commission of the European Communities European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (Editor M Weydert) p60-63 Elsevier Applied Science 1992 ISBN 1 85166 9485.
  • Nedwell J R, Parvin S J (1992) 'Underwater hearing in man: A literature review'. DRA Technical Memorandum No DRA/AWL TM 92723 September 1992 Defence Research Agency, United Kingdom.
  • Al Masri M, Martin A, Nedwell J R (1992) 'Underwater noise exposure and hearing; a literature review.' Proceedings of the Commission of the European Communities European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (Editor M Weydert) p531-534 Elsevier Applied Science 1992 ISBN 1 85166 9485.

Advanced instrumentation

  • Nedwell J R, Alinier G, Howell, D (2003) 'BATS: The Boundary and Altitude Tracking System'. Proceedings of the Institute of Physics, Sensors for Aircraft Systems, 14 May 2003, Institute of Physics, London, UK.
  • Nedwell J R (1992) 'An ultrasonic altimeter: A feasibility study based on the Sonar equation'. Proceedings of the Colloquium on Developments in Acoustic and Ultrasonic Sensing 10 September 1992 University of Southampton Institute of Transducer Technology.
  • Nedwell J R 'Acoustically compact transient sources for underwater measurement and calibration'. ISVR Technical Report No 629.

Piling

  • Nedwell J R (2004) 'Methods of rating the impact of construction noise on fish; improved metrics and experimental investigations'. American Fisheries Society - 134th Annual Meeting - 22-26 August 2004.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H, Edwards B (2002) 'Piling on the River Arun; implications for salmon migration'. Proceedings of the American Fisheries Society 132nd Annual Meeting, 1822 August 2002, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Baltimore, USA.

Windfarms

  • Nedwell J R, Langworthy J, Howell D (2004) 'Underwater noise and offshore windfarms'. Proceedings of the British Wind Energy Conference on Offshore Windpower, UK Offshore Wind 2004, 3rd-4th March 2004, London, UK.

Other

  • Nedwell J R 'Review of Underwater Electroacoustic Transducers (Stansfield)'. Journal of Sound and Vibration 149(3) p532-533.

Public Domain reports on behalf of major organisations

Books

  • Guidelines for the safe use of explosives underwater, MTD Publication 96/101. Published on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive by the Marine Technology Directorate, 19 Buckingham Street, London WC2N 6EF.

The Department of Trade and Industry

  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H, Lovell J (2004) 'Progress report: Validation of the dBht for a range of species of fish'. Subacoustech Report to the DTI Report Reference: 534R0309, Feb 2004.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H, Gordon J and Edwards B 'Fish and Marine Mammal Audiograms: A summary of available information on their hearing'. Subacoustech Report to the DTI ref: 534R0210.
  • Nedwell J R and Edwards B. The Subacoustech database: 'A summary of broadband measurements of underwater noise and possible effects on marine mammals and fish'. Subacoustech Report to the DTI ref: 534R0110.

Seismics and Oil & Gas Industry

  • Nedwell J R, Edwards B, Needham K (2002) 'Noise measurements during pipeline laying operations around the Shetland Islands for the Magnus EOR project'. Subacoustech Ltd. Report No. 473R0212.
  • Nedwell J R, Needham K (2001) 'Measurement of drill rig noise'. Subacoustech Ltd. Report No. 452R0102.
  • Nedwell J R, Needham K, Edwards B (2001) 'Report on Measurements of Underwater Noise from the Jack Bates Drill Rig'. Subacoustech Ltd. Report No. 462R0202.
  • Nedwell J R, Needham K, Gordon J, Rogers C, Gordon T (2001) 'The effects of underwater blast on marine mammals during wellhead severance in the North Sea'. Subacoustech Ltd. Report No. 469R0202.
  • Nedwell J R, Needham K, Turnpenny A W H, Thompson D (1999) 'Measurement of sound during a 3D seismic survey in blocks 14/14a of the North Sea'. Subacoustech Ltd. Report No 356R0108.
  • Turnpenny A W H, Seaby R M H, Nedwell J R, Needham K (1995) 'Measurements of sound propagation from a seismic airgun array in Poole Harbour and Bay'. Subacoustech Report No 125R0301.
  • Turnpenny A W H, Seaby R M H, Nedwell J R, Needham K (1994) 'Underwater sound pressures measured during seismic testing at Redhorn Quay'. Subacoustech Report No 125R0101.
  • Nedwell J R, Needham K, Turnpenny A W H, Seaby R M H, Thatcher K (1994) 'An investigation of underwater sound propagation from seismics in shallow water'. Subacoustech Report No 125R0201.
  • Nedwell J R, Turnpenny A W H, Snow C 'An acoustic survey of environmental noise from seismics in the Meldorfer Bucht'. Subacoustech report reference 239R0102.

The UK Defense Research Agency

  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R, Searle S L (2001) 'A survey of noise exposure of divers operating underwater tools'. QINETIQ/CHS/PPD/CR010322 November 2001.
  • Parvin S J, Hall A, Nicholson J, Searle S L, Nedwell J R, Needham K (2000) 'An assessment of underwater impulse noise during actuation of the Weapons Attack Helicopter - 64, canopy severance device'. DERA/CHS/PPD/CR000293/1.0, June 2000.
  • Nedwell J R, Parvin S J, Anthony T G (1999) 'Long range diver recall: Feasibility study'. DERA/CHS/PPD/TR980224/1.0 April 1999.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R (1996) 'The effects of low frequency sonar transmissions on divers and ichthyofauna: Update of diver noise exposure guideline'. DRA/SSES2/CR961032/1.0, April 1996.
  • Martin A M, Nelson C (1995) 'Evaluating the risk to hearing from noise exposure in hyperbaric conditions'. SSC40136 ES(ALV), Jul 1995.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R, Needham K, Turnpenny A W H, Thomas A J (1994) 'The effects of low frequency sonar transmissions on divers and ichthyofauna: Hyperbaric and open water studies and the noise exposure of species of fish'. DRA/AWL/CR941010/V1.0, Dec 1994.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R, Thomas A J, Needham K, Thompson R (1994) 'Underwater sound perception by divers: The development of an underwater hearing thresholds curve and its use in assessing the hazard to divers from waterborne sound'. DRA/AWL/CR941004, Jun 1994.
  • Anthony T G, Gay L A, Gilbert L, Parvin S J, Nedwell J R , Searle S (1994) 'Manned evaluation of the AH3 free flow diving helmet'. DRA/AW/AWL/CR941001, May 1994.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R (1993) 'Measurement of hyperbaric change of resonant frequency of the immersed human thorax and mask / sinuses'. DRA/AW/AWL/TR93002, Nov 1993.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R (1993) 'The noise exposure of divers and dive support personnel: A research programme to provide guidance to dive contractors who may be exposing divers to hazardous noise environments'. DRA/AW/AWL/CR93006, Oct 1993.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R (1993) 'The effects of low frequency sonar transmissions on divers and ichthyofauna: literature survey and initial experimental results'. DRA(AWL)TM93 721 Sep 1993.
  • Nedwell J R, Parvin S J (1993) 'An experimental protocol for the measurement of low frequency resonance in the diver: A code of conduct for research in the acoustic water tan'. DRA Alverstoke. DRA(AWL)TM93 715 , Aug 1993.
  • Nedwell J R, Parvin S J (1992) 'Underwater Hearing in Man'. A Literature Review. DRA(AWL)TM92 723, Sep 1992.
  • Parvin S J, Nedwell J R (1991) 'Reduction of noise levels from a counterlung breathing apparatus.' DRA(MTL) TM 91 715 July 1991.

Video

Audio

The following wav and mp3 files are of some common anthropogenic underwater sounds

For more sound files of noise associated with windfarm development, check the windfarms page.